The state of the art in GPU- and statistics-enhanced password cracking. Crackers beating down information entropy just like in the old days at Bletchley Park! (Trivia question: what are "bans" and "cribs"? Answers) Ars technica: ... An even more powerful technique is a hybrid attack. It combines a word list, like the one used by Redman, with rules to greatly expand the number of passwords those lists can crack. Rather than brute-forcing the five letters in Julia1984, hackers simply compile a list of first names for every single Facebook user and add them to a medium-sized dictionary of, say, 100 million words. While the attack requires more combinations than the mask attack above—specifically about 1 trillion (100 million * 104) possible strings—it's still a manageable number that takes only about two minutes using the same AMD 7970 card. The payoff, however, is more than worth the additional effort, since it will quickly crack Christopher2000, thomas1964, and scores of others. "The hybrid is my favorite attack," said Atom, the pseudonymous developer of Hashcat, whose team won this year's Crack Me if You Can contest at Defcon. "It's the most efficient. If I get a new hash list, let's say 500,000 hashes, I can crack 50 percent just with hybrid." With half the passwords in a given breach recovered, cracking experts like Atom can use Passpal and other programs to isolate patterns that are unique to the website from which they came. They then write new rules to crack the remaining unknown passwords. More often than not, however, no amount of sophistication and high-end hardware is enough to quickly crack some hashes exposed in a server breach. To ensure they keep up with changing password choices, crackers will regularly brute-force crack some percentage of the unknown passwords, even when they contain as many as nine or more characters. "It's very expensive, but you do it to improve your model and keep up with passwords people are choosing," said Moxie Marlinspike, another cracking expert. "Then, given that knowledge, you can go back and build rules and word lists to effectively crack lists without having to brute force all of them. When you feed your successes back into your process, you just keep learning more and more and more and it does snowball."